Forcing definition horticulture

Forcing definition horticulture

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Metrics details. With the global population expected to reach over 9 billion by , there is a continuous need to increase food production and buffer stocks. In this scenario, countries around the world, especially developing countries where the pervasiveness of hunger and food scarcity is more acute, are resorting to various counter strategies to meet the growing demand and to avert food insecurity and famine. Over the recent years there has been growing interest to strengthen and intensify local food production in order to mitigate the adverse effect of global food shocks and food price volatilities. Consequently, there is much attention towards home gardens as a strategy to enhance household food security and nutrition. Home gardens are an integral part of local food systems and the agricultural landscape of developing countries all over the world and have endured the test of time.

  • Labour in the agriculture industry, UK: February 2018
  • Employment in Agriculture
  • Forcing Shiitake Mushroom Logs to Fruit
  • Blanching (horticulture)
  • Schroeder Ag Law Blog
  • Tropical and subtropical vegetables (2+1)
  • Glossary of Terms
  • Forcing Bulbs Indoors
  • Access Denied
WATCH RELATED VIDEO: What is HORTICULTURE? What does HORTICULTURE mean? HORTICULTURE meaning u0026 explanation

Labour in the agriculture industry, UK: February 2018

Plant growth and geographic distribution are greatly affected by the environment. For example, only plants adapted to limited amounts of water can live in deserts. Either directly or indirectly, most plant problems are caused by environmental stress. In some cases, poor environmental conditions e. In other cases, environmental stress weakens a plant and makes it more susceptible to disease or insect attack. Environmental factors that affect plant growth include light, temperature, water, humidity, and nutrition.

It is important to understand how these factors affect plant growth and development. With a basic understanding of these factors, you may be able to manipulate plants to meet your needs, whether for increased leaf, flower, or fruit production.

By recognizing the roles of these factors, you also will be better able to diagnose plant problems caused by environmental stress. Three principal characteristics of light affect plant growth: quantity , quality , and duration. Light quantity refers to the intensity, or concentration, of sunlight. It varies with the seasons. The maximum amount of light is present in summer, and the minimum in winter. Up to a point, the more sunlight a plant receives, the greater its capacity for producing food via photosynthesis.

You can manipulate light quantity to achieve different plant growth patterns. Increase light by surrounding plants with reflective materials, a white background, or supplemental lights.

Decrease it by shading plants with cheesecloth or woven shade cloths. Light quality refers to the color wavelength of light. Sunlight supplies the complete range of wavelengths and can be broken up by a prism into bands of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.

Blue and red light, which plants absorb, have the greatest effect on plant growth. Blue light is responsible primarily for vegetative leaf growth. Red light, when combined with blue light, encourages flowering. Plants look green to us because they reflect, rather than absorb, green light.

Knowing which light source to use is important for manipulating plant growth. For example, fluorescent cool white light is high in the blue wavelength. It encourages leafy growth and is excellent for starting seedlings. Incandescent light is high in the red or orange range, but generally produces too much heat to be a valuable light source for plants.

Fluorescent grow-lights attempt to imitate sunlight with a mixture of red and blue wavelengths, but they are costly and generally no better than regular fluorescent lights. Duration, or photoperiod , refers to the amount of time a plant is exposed to light. Photoperiod controls flowering in many plants FigureScientists initially thought the length of light period triggered flowering and other responses within plants.

Thus, they describe plants as short-day or long-day, depending on what conditions they flower under. We now know that it is not the length of the light period, but rather the length of uninterrupted darkness, that is critical to floral development.Plants are classified into three categories: short-day long-night , long-day short-night , or day-neutral, depending on their response to the duration of light or darkness. Short-day plants form flowers only when day length is less than about 12 hours.

Many spring- and fall-flowering plants, such as chrysanthemum, poinsettia, and Christmas cactus, are in this category. In contrast, long-day plants form flowers only when day length exceeds 12 hours. Most summer flowering plants e. Day-neutral plants form flowers regardless of day length.

Examples are tomato, corn, cucumber, and some strawberry cultivars. Some plants do not fit into any category, but may respond to combinations of day lengths. Petunias, for example, flower regardless of day length, but flower earlier and more profusely with long days. You can easily manipulate photoperiod to stimulate flowering. For example, chrysanthemums normally flower in the short days of spring or fall, but you can get them to bloom in midsummer by covering them with a cloth that completely blocks out light for 12 hours each day.

After several weeks of this treatment, the artificial dark period no longer is needed, and the plants will bloom as if it were spring or fall. This method also is used to make poinsettias flower in time for Christmas. To bring a long-day plant into flower when day length is less than 12 hours, expose the plant to supplemental light.

After a few weeks, flower buds will form. Temperature influences most plant processes, including photosynthesis, transpiration, respiration, germination, and flowering. As temperature increases up to a point , photosynthesis, transpiration, and respiration increase. When combined with day-length, temperature also affects the change from vegetative leafy to reproductive flowering growth.

Depending on the situation and the specific plant, the effect of temperature can either speed up or slow down this transition. The temperature required for germination varies by species. Generally, cool-season crops e. Sometimes horticulturists use temperature in combination with day length to manipulate flowering. For example, a Christmas cactus forms flowers as a result of short days and low temperatures FigureIf temperatures are high and days are long, cool-season crops such as spinach will flower bolt.

However, if temperatures are too cool, fruit will not set on warm-season crops such as tomato. Low temperatures reduce energy use and increase sugar storage. Thus, leaving crops such as ripe winter squash on the vine during cool, fall nights increases their sweetness.

Adverse temperatures, however, cause stunted growth and poor-quality vegetables. For example, high temperatures cause bitter lettuce. Thermoperiod refers to daily temperature change. Plants grow best when daytime temperature is about 10 to 15 degrees higher than nighttime temperature. Under these conditions, plants photosynthesize build up and respire break down during optimum daytime temperatures and then curtail respiration at night.

However, not all plants grow best under the same range between nighttime and daytime temperatures. Temperatures higher than needed increase respiration, sometimes above the rate of photosynthesis. Thus, photosynthates are used faster than they are produced. For growth to occur, photosynthesis must be greater than respiration.

Daytime temperatures that are too low often produce poor growth by slowing down photosynthesis. The result is reduced yield i.

Some plants that grow in cold regions need a certain number of days of low temperature dormancy. Knowing the period of low temperature required by a plant, if any, is essential in getting it to grow to its potential.

The cold temperature allows the bulbs to mature. When transferred to a greenhouse in midwinter, they begin to grow, and flowers are ready to cut in 3 to 4 weeks.

Plants are classified as hardy or nonhardy depending on their ability to withstand cold temperatures. Hardy plants are those that are adapted to the cold temperatures of their growing environment. Woody plants in the temperate zone have very sophisticated means for sensing the progression from fall to winter.

Decreasing day length and temperature trigger hormonal changes that cause leaves to stop photosynthesizing and to ship nutrients to twigs, buds, stems, and roots. An abscission layer forms where each petiole joins a stem, and the leaves eventually fall off. Changes within the trunk and stem tissues over a relatively short period of time "freeze-proof" the plant. Winter injury to hardy plants generally occurs when temperatures drop too quickly in the fall before a plant has progressed to full dormancy.

In other cases, a plant may break dormancy in mid- or late winter if the weather is unseasonably warm. If a sudden, severe cold snap follows the warm spell, otherwise hardy plants can be seriously damaged.It is worth noting that the tops of hardy plants are much more cold-tolerant than the roots.

Winter injury also may occur because of desiccation drying out of plant tissues. People often forget that plants need water even during winter. When the soil is frozen, water movement into a plant is severely restricted. On a windy winter day, broadleaf evergreens can become water-deficient in a few minutes, and the leaves or needles then turn brown. To minimize the risk of this type of injury, make sure your plants go into the winter well watered. Relative humidity is the ratio of water vapor in the air to the amount of water the air could hold at the current temperature and pressure.

Warm air can hold more water vapor than cold air. Relative humidity RH is expressed by the following equation:. Relative humidity is given as a percent. Water vapor moves from an area of high relative humidity to one of low relative humidity.

The greater the difference in humidity, the faster water moves. This factor is important because the rate of water movement directly affects a plant's transpiration rate. The relative humidity in the air spaces between leaf cells approaches percent.

When a stoma opens, water vapor inside the leaf rushes out into the surrounding air Figure 25 , and a bubble of high humidity forms around the stoma.

Employment in Agriculture

Horticulture is a branch of agriculture that deals with cultivation of fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants. The word horticulture is derived from the latin words 'hortus' meaning garden and 'colere' meaning to cultivate. Horticulture is both a science and an art of growing plants with improved growth, quality, yield, and with resistance to diseases, insects, stress etc. There are four main classes of horticulture: i Pomology fruit farming , ii Olericulture vegetable farming , iii Floriculture flowers farming , iv Landscape gardening. It deals with development, enhancement of fruit quality, cultivation techniques, regulation of production periods and reduction of production cost of fruits.

In this chapter, we emphasize a forcing definition that accounts for the complicating climate and partly due to anthropogenic emissions (agriculture.

Forcing Shiitake Mushroom Logs to Fruit

Pre-cooling refers to the rapid removal of field heat shortly after the harvest of a crop. Field heat can be defined as the difference in temperature between the temperature of the crop harvested and the optimal storage temperature of that product. Nevertheless, due to biological factors, the importance of rapid pre-cooling varies. According to the Indian Board of Horticulture [1] , especially grapes, mandarins, berries, cherries, leeches, melons, stone fruits, sapotas, okra, tomatoes, capsicum, chilli peppers, eggplant, cucumbers, green beans, peas, and spinach should be rapidly pre-cooled, whereas other, less perishable produce is made up of mangoes, papaya, guava, green bananas, pomegranates, radish, cabbage, cauliflower and carrots. More detailed information about adequate pre-cooling methods for various fresh produce items can be found here. There are several methods that can be chosen to pre-cool produce. Which method is the most suitable choice depends on various factors of which some are listed below:. Regardless of which method is used, the process should always be monitored in order to ensure that precooling is achieved in the most efficient way. Depending on method and product at hand, produce will cool at different rates. In general, there are three different methods to pre-cool produce, using either air, water or the creation of a vacuum.

Blanching (horticulture)

Human expansion throughout the world caused that agriculture is a dominant form of land management globally. Human influence on the land is accelerating because of rapid population growth and increasing food requirements. To stress the interactions between society and the environment, the driving forces D , pressures P , states S , impacts I , and response R DPSIR framework approach was used for analyzing and assessing the influence of agriculture on land use, environment, and ecosystem services. The DPSIR model was used to identify a series of core indicators and to establish the nature of interactions between different driving forces, pressures, states, impacts, and responses.

When combined with an efficient irrigation system both nutrients and water can be manipulated and managed to obtain the maximum possible yield of marketable production from a given quantity of these inputs. Often, solid fertiliser side-dressings are timed to suit management constraints rather than the horticultural requirements of the crop.

Schroeder Ag Law Blog

Ultraviolet radiation from the sun can start to burn unprotected skin within minutes.In Victoria, from September to April, check the SunSmart UV Alert each day for the daily sun protection times, in the daily newspaper or on your smartphone. When the UV level is three or above:. Common lawnmower injuries include open wounds and bone fractures involving the hands and feet. Eye injuries can also be caused by the mower blades flicking up debris such as sticks and stones. Safety suggestions include:.

Tropical and subtropical vegetables (2+1)

Blanching is a technique used in vegetable growing. Young shoots of a plant are covered to exclude light to prevent photosynthesis and the production of chlorophyll , and thus remain pale in color. Different methods used include covering with soil hilling or earthing up or with solid materials such as board or terracotta pots, or growing the crop indoors in darkened conditions. Vegetables that are usually blanched include: [6] [7]. Vegetables that are sometimes blanched include: [6]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Blanching cooking. Gardening portal.

This definition makes the implications of urbanization distinct from those of force in agriculture when 15–30% of their population live in rural areas.

Glossary of Terms

In Geneva, Switzerland, in the University mathematics library, his wiry beard now blanch ed with time, Besso sat hunched over his own pile of books, and worked—quietly, mysteriously—alone. A comforting grain bowl relies on a surprising technique for the fluffiest kashaThe main sticking point has been the step of blanch ing the head of cabbage to make the leaves pliable enough to use as wrappers. He blanch ed when it came time to plunge, invest the money, press, and distribute. But conservative Democratic senators still blanch ed and the White House did not push the matter.

Forcing Bulbs Indoors

RELATED VIDEO: Basic Horticulture Terminology

Methods of vegetative propagation wherein a part of the plant, usually a stem or a leaf, is cut off and planted in a growth substrate illustration in Fig. Ground layering methods, i. Air layering, or marcotting, methods, i. Grafting methods, i. Inarching methods, wherein the scion is still attached to its own root system at the time of grafting illustration in Fig. Apparatus for manually illustration in Fig.

Pinching, otherwise known as tipping, is a pruning method generally used on young plants to encourage branching.

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Written by Dr. Lois Berg Stack, Extension ProfessorRevised by Dr. Note to readers: This document contains many common soil science terms. Understanding these terms, which are italicized in the text, will help you understand soils as you read gardening books. It varies from place to place, in response to the five factors that form it: climate, topography, organisms, the parent rock below surface, and time.

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